Complex number calculator with steps




This calculator do basic arithmetic on complex numbers and evaluate expressions in set of complex numbers. As imaginary unit use i or j (in electrotechnics) which satisfies basic equation i2 = −1 or j2 = −1. Calculator provides also conversion of complex number into goniometric exponential or polar coordinates. Enter expression with complex numbers like 5*(1+i)(-2-5i)^2

Complex numbers in the phasor or versor form (polar form, polar coordinates r, θ) may be written as rLθ where r is amplitude/radius and θ is initial phase/angle in degrees for example 5L65.
Example of multiplication of two imaginary numbers in the phasor/polar/versor form: 10L45 * 3L90.

Why next complex numbers calculator when we have WolframAlpha? Because Wolfram tool is slow and some features such as step by step are charged premium service.                  
For use in education (for example calculations alternating currents at high school) you need quick and clear complex number calculator.



Basic operations with complex numbers

We hope that work with complex number is quite easy, because you can work with imaginary unit i as a variable. And use definition i2 = -1 to simplify complex expressions. Many operations are same as operations with two dimensionals vectors.

Addition

Very simple, add up the real parts (without i) and add up the imaginary parts (with i):
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)+(c+di) = (a+c) + (b+d)i

(1+i) + (6-5i) = 7-4i
12 + 6-5i = 18-5i
(10-5i) + (-5+5i) = 5

Subtraction

Again very simple, subtract the real parts and subtract the imaginary parts (with i):
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)+(c+di) = (a-c) + (b-d)i

(1+i) - (3-5i) = -2+6i
-1/2 - (6-5i) = -6.5+5i
(10-5i) - (-5+5i) = 15-10i

Multiplication

To multiply two complex number use distributive law, avoid binomials and apply i2 = -1.
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)(c+di) = (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)i

(1+i) (3+5i) = 1*3+1*5i+i*3+i*5i = 3+5i+3i-5 = -2+8i
-1/2 * (6-5i) = -3+2.5i
(10-5i) * (-5+5i) = -25+75i

Division

Division of two complex number is based on avoid imaginary unit i from denominator. This can be done only via i2 = -1. If denominator is c+di, to make it without i (or make it real), just multiply with conjugate c-di:

(c+di)(c-di) = c2+d2



(10-5i) / (1+i) = 2.5-7.5i
-3 / (2-i) = -1.2-0.6i
6i / (4+3i) = 0.72+0.96i

Absolute value or modulus

Absolute value or modulus is distance of image of complex number from origin in plane. That use Pythagorean theorem, just as case of 2D vector. Very simple, see examples: |3+4i| = 5
|1-i| = 1.41421356237
|6i| = 6
abs(2+5i) = 5.38516480713

Square root

Square root of complex number (a+bi) is z, if z2 = (a+bi). Here ends simplicity. Because of the fundamental theorem of algebra, you will always have two different square roots for a given number. If you want to find out the possible values, the easiest way is probably to go with De Moivre's formula. Here our calculator is on edge, because square root is not a well defined function on complex number. We calculate only one square root now:

sqrt(9i) = 2.1213203+2.1213203i
sqrt(10-6i) = 3.2910412-0.9115656i

Square, power, complex exponentiation

Yes, our calculator can power any complex number to any integer (positive, negative), real or even complex number. In another words, we calculate 'complex number to a complex power' or 'complex number raised to a power'...
Famous example:

i^2 = -1
i^61 = i
(6-2i)^6 = -22528-59904i
(6-i)^4.5 = 2486.1377985-2284.555789i
(6-5i)^(-3+32i) = 2929449.06705-9022199.66612i
i^i = 0.2078796
pow(1+i,3) = -2+2i

Functions

sqrt
Square Root of a value or expression.
sin
sine of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
cos
cosine of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
tan/tg
tangent of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
exp
e (the Euler Constant) raised to the power of a value or expression
pow
Power one complex number to another integer/real/comple number
ln
The natural logarithm of a value or expression
log
The base-10 logarithm of a value or expression
abs or |1+i|
Absolute value of a value or expression
cis
is less known notation: cis(x) = cos(x)+ i sin(x); example: cis (pi/2) + 3 = 3+i