z = ((1 + i)^3)

Rectangular form:
z = -2+2i

Exponential form:
z = 2.828427 × ei 135°

Polar form:
z = 2.828427 × (cos 135° + i sin 135°)

Polar form - absolute value (modulus) and angle (argument):
r = |z| = 2.82843
φ = arg z = 135° = 0.75π = 3π/4

Calculation steps

  1. Power: (1+i) ^ 3 = (1.4142136 × ei 45°)3 = 1.414213562373 × ei 3 × 45° = 2.8284271 × ei 135° = = -2+2i

Calculate next expression:

This calculator does basic arithmetic on complex numbers and evaluates expressions in the set of complex numbers. As imaginary unit use i or j (in electrical engineering) which satisfies basic equation i2 = −1 or j2 = −1. The calculator provides also a conversion of complex number into goniometric exponential or polar coordinates. Enter expression with complex numbers like 5*(1+i)(-2-5i)^2

Complex numbers in the phasor or versor form (polar form, polar coordinates r, θ) may be written as rLθ where r is amplitude/radius and θ is initial phase/angle in degrees for example 5L65 which is same as 5*cis(65°).
Example of multiplication of two imaginary numbers in the phasor/polar/versor form: 10L45 * 3L90.

Why next complex numbers calculator when we have WolframAlpha? Because Wolfram tool is slow and some features such as step by step are charged premium service.                  
For use in education (for example calculations alternating currents at high school) you need quick and clear complex number calculator.

Basic operations with complex numbers

We hope that work with complex number is quite easy, because you can work with imaginary unit i as a variable. And use definition i2 = -1 to simplify complex expressions. Many operations are same as operations with two dimensionals vectors.


Very simple, add up the real parts (without i) and add up the imaginary parts (with i):
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)+(c+di) = (a+c) + (b+d)i

(1+i) + (6-5i) = 7-4i
12 + 6-5i = 18-5i
(10-5i) + (-5+5i) = 5


Again very simple, subtract the real parts and subtract the imaginary parts (with i):
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)+(c+di) = (a-c) + (b-d)i

(1+i) - (3-5i) = -2+6i
-1/2 - (6-5i) = -6.5+5i
(10-5i) - (-5+5i) = 15-10i


To multiply two complex number use distributive law, avoid binomials and apply i2 = -1.
This is equal to use rule: (a+bi)(c+di) = (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)i

(1+i) (3+5i) = 1*3+1*5i+i*3+i*5i = 3+5i+3i-5 = -2+8i
-1/2 * (6-5i) = -3+2.5i
(10-5i) * (-5+5i) = -25+75i


Division of two complex number is based on avoid imaginary unit i from denominator. This can be done only via i2 = -1. If denominator is c+di, to make it without i (or make it real), just multiply with conjugate c-di:

(c+di)(c-di) = c2+d2

 fraction{a+bi}{c+di} = fraction{(a+bi)(c-di)}{(c+di)(c-di)} = fraction{ac+bd+i(bc-ad)}{c**2+d**2} = fraction{ac+bd}{c**2+d**2}+ fraction{bc-ad}{c**2+d**2} i ; ;

(10-5i) / (1+i) = 2.5-7.5i
-3 / (2-i) = -1.2-0.6i
6i / (4+3i) = 0.72+0.96i

Absolute value or modulus

Absolute value or modulus is distance of image of complex number from origin in plane. That use Pythagorean theorem, just as case of 2D vector. Very simple, see examples: |3+4i| = 5
|1-i| = 1.41421356237
|6i| = 6
abs(2+5i) = 5.38516480713

Square root

Square root of complex number (a+bi) is z, if z2 = (a+bi). Here ends simplicity. Because of the fundamental theorem of algebra, you will always have two different square roots for a given number. If you want to find out the possible values, the easiest way is probably to go with De Moivre's formula. Here our calculator is on edge, because square root is not a well defined function on complex number. We calculate all complex roots from any number - even in expressions:

sqrt(9i) = 2.1213203+2.1213203i
sqrt(10-6i) = 3.2910412-0.9115656i
pow(-32,1/5)/5 = -0.4
pow(1+2i,1/3)*sqrt(4) = 2.439233+0.9434225i
pow(-5i,1/8)*pow(8,1/3) = 2.3986959-0.4771303i

Square, power, complex exponentiation

Yes, our calculator can power any complex number to any integer (positive, negative), real or even complex number. In another words, we calculate 'complex number to a complex power' or 'complex number raised to a power'...
Famous example:
i**i = e**{- pi/2} ; ;
i^2 = -1
i^61 = i
(6-2i)^6 = -22528-59904i
(6-i)^4.5 = 2486.1377985-2284.555789i
(6-5i)^(-3+32i) = 2929449.06705-9022199.66612i
i^i = 0.207879576351
pow(1+i,3) = -2+2i


Square Root of a value or expression.
sine of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
cosine of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
tangent of a value or expression. Autodetect radians/degrees.
e (the Euler Constant) raised to the power of a value or expression
Power one complex number to another integer/real/comple number
The natural logarithm of a value or expression
The base-10 logarithm of a value or expression
abs or |1+i|
Absolute value of a value or expression
is less known notation: cis(x) = cos(x)+ i sin(x); example: cis (pi/2) + 3 = 3+i
conjugate of complex number - example: conj(4i+5) = 5-4i